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主题: 中学时读到过辛丑条约,城下之盟,奇耻大辱。4万万同胞每人摊上一两五白银,共
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作者 中学时读到过辛丑条约,城下之盟,奇耻大辱。4万万同胞每人摊上一两五白银,共   
ceo/cfo
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头衔: 海归中将

头衔: 海归中将
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加入时间: 2004/11/05
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文章标题: 中学时读到过辛丑条约,城下之盟,奇耻大辱。4万万同胞每人摊上一两五白银,共 (1036 reads)      时间: 2014-7-18 周五, 06:50   

作者:ceo/cfo海归主坛 发贴, 来自【海归网】 http://www.haiguinet.com

4亿5千万两,39年到期,年息4%, 相当于当年美金 US$333 million 或英镑£67 million.

(The Chinese paid the indemnity in gold on a rising scale with a 4% interest charge until the debt was amortized on December 31, 1940. After 39 years, the amount was almost 1 billion taels (precisely 982,238,150),[4] or ~1,180,000,000 troy ounces (37,000 t) @ 1.2 ozt/tael.)

各列强的分红如下: 俄国 28.97%, 德国 20.02%, 法国 15.75%, 英国 11.25%, Japan 7.73%, 美国 7.32%, 意大利 7.32%, 比利时1.89%, 奥匈帝国 0.89%, (一战后灭了)荷兰 0.17%, and 西, 葡, 挪,瑞典, 各 0.025%。( Also, additional 16,886,708 taels was paid at local level in 17 provinces. By 1938, 652.37 million taels had been paid. The interest rate (of 4% per annum) was to be paid semi-annually with the first payment being the July 1, 1902)

各国还要求在京驻军(不是驻京办)。要求把慈禧太后列为战犯第一名,后经汉族大臣李鸿章,袁世凯极力申诉而未果。条件是她从此不理朝政,幕后操纵。

两年之内不得进口武器装备;两年之后的两年里以观后效,再由各国决定。

拆除大沽炮台。各国驻军地享有治外法权,华人不得居住。

对此乱负有责任的官,匪领被宰的,流放到 Turkestan,无期徒刑的,自杀的,以及“鞭尸的“都不少。( imprisoned for life, commit suicide, or suffer posthumous degradation.)
万国事务府改成了“外交部”成了6部之首。
The "Office in Charge of Affairs of All Nations" (Zongli Yamen) was replaced with a Foreign Office, which ranked above the other six boards in the government 
清政府还必须严禁任何排外社团,违者处死。。。所有发生过杀戮虐待外籍人士的地区5年里不得有科举考试。如再有此类事发生,拿地方官员是问,严惩不贷。
The Chinese Government was to prohibit forever, under the pain of death, membership in any anti-foreign society, civil service examinations were to be suspended for 5 years in all areas where foreigners were massacred or subjected to cruel treatment, provincial and local officials would personally be held responsible for any new anti-foreign incidents.
因为德人Baron von Ketteler和日人Mr. Sugiyama的暗杀案,中国皇帝必须任命那桐作为特使去德日两皇处上门道歉,并在德人遇难之地树碑,以德,中,拉丁三语立传。

以下地区由列强占领:
黃村 黄村 Huangcun Huang-tsun
郎坊(廊坊) 郎坊(廊坊) Langfang Lang-fang
楊村 杨村 Yangcun Yang-tsun
天津 天津 Tianjin Tien-tsin
軍糧城 军粮城 Junliangcheng Chun-liang-Cheng
塘沽 塘沽 Tanggu Tong-ku
蘆臺 芦台 Lutai Lu-tai
唐山 唐山 Tangshan Tong-shan
灤州 滦州 Luanzhou Lan-chou
昌黎 昌黎 Changli Chang-li
秦皇島 秦皇岛 Qinhuangdao Chin-wang Tao
山海關 山海关 Shanhaiguan Shan-hai Kuan

中方并无接受所有条件。排外的满洲总督毓贤被处死,而穆斯林的董福祥免于一死,被“发配”到他的老家甘薯,逍遥自在。支持义和团的载漪也没有因列强的要求被发配到新疆,而是去了宁夏西面的阿拉山,住在当地蒙古王子的寓所。辛亥革命中穆斯林占领了宁夏,他就搬去那里,后来还是去了新疆。

The Qing did not capitulate to all the foreign demands. The Manchu Governor Yuxian was executed, but the Imperial court refused to execute the Chinese General Dong Fuxiang, although both were anti-foreign and had encouraged the killing of foreigners during the rebellion.[10] Instead, General Dong Fuxiang lived a life of luxury and power in "exile" in his home province of Gansu.

1908年12月28日,美国拿出了1千一百96万所的的赔款建立了清华大学和用于资助中国学子赴美留学。
On December 28, 1908, the United States remitted $11,961,121.76 of its share of the Indemnity to support the education of Chinese students in the United States and the construction of Tsinghua University in Beijing.[14]
1917年中国参战一次大战向德奥宣战,同时停付对两国之赔款,巴黎和会中取消该两国的赔款。
其中对俄赔款最复杂。1918年12月2日,布尔什维克的苏联政府明令取消俄国的那份赔款,但是1923年秋季列夫。。同志到北京要求掌控这笔钱。。。。

The history surrounding Russia's share of the Boxer Indemnity is the most complex of all the nations involved. On December 2, 1918 the Bolsheviks issued an official decree abolishing Russia's share of the Indemnity (146). Upon the arrival of Lev Karakhan in Beijing during the Fall of 1923, however, it became clear that the Soviet Union expected to retain control over how the Russian share was to be spent. Though Karakhan was initially hesitant to follow the United States' example of directing the funds toward education, he soon insisted in private that the Russian share had to be used for that purpose and during February 1924, presented a proposal stating that the "Soviet portion of the Boxer Indemnity would be allocated to Chinese educational institutions."[16]

On March 14, 1924, Karakhan completed a draft Sino-Soviet agreement stating "The government of the USSR agrees to renounce the Russian portion of the Boxer Indemnity." Copies of these terms were published in the Chinese press, and the ensuing positive public reaction encouraged other countries to match the USSR's terms. On May 21, 1924, the U.S. Congress agreed to remit to China the final $6,137,552.90 of the American share. Ten days later, however, it became apparent that the USSR did not intend to carry through on its earlier promise of full renunciation. When the final Sino-Soviet agreement was announced, it specified that Russia's share would be used to promote education in China and that the Soviet government would retain control over how the money was to be used, an exact parallel to the U.S. remittance of 1908.[17]

On March 3, 1925, Great Britain completed arrangements to use its share of the Boxer Indemnity to support railway construction in China. On April 12, France asked that its indemnity be used to reopen a defunct Sino-French Bank. Italy signed an agreement on October 1 to spend its share on the construction of steel bridges. The Netherlands' share paid for harbor and land reclamation, and the Belgian funds were earmarked to be spent on railway material in Belgium. Finally, Japan's indemnity was transferred to develop aviation in China under Japanese oversight[18]

Once these countries' approximately 40 percent of the Boxer Indemnity was added to Germany's and Austria's combined 20.91 percent, the United States' 7.32 percent, and the Soviet Union's 28.97 percent share, the Beijing government had accounted for over 98 percent of the entire Boxer Indemnity. Hence, by 1927, Beijing had almost completely revoked Boxer Indemnity payments abroad and had succeeded in redirecting the payments for use within China.[19]

事实上到了1927年所有对外赔款都停止了,而转至用于国内了。

作者:ceo/cfo海归主坛 发贴, 来自【海归网】 http://www.haiguinet.com






上一次由ceo/cfo于2014-7-19 周六, 00:12修改,总共修改了1次





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